Trying to understand all this, L. N. Tolstoy opened contradictions of moral life of the person of modern society, having specified that the main reason of loss of belief and intelligence of the existence is covered by it in the blind egoism which perverted the dukhovnotsennostny nature of knowledge.
Education is understood as purposeful development of each growing person as unique human identity, an obespechivaniye of growth and improvement of a moral and creative power of this person, through creation of such public practice in the conditions of which that at the child is in embryo or so far only makes opportunity, turns into reality. "To bring up is means to direct development of the subjective world of the person", on the one hand, working according to that moral sample, an ideal which embodies requirements of society to the growing person, and on the other hand, pursuing the aim of the maximum development of specific features of each child. As L.S. Vygotsky, "the teacher from a scientific point of sight - only the organizer of the social educational environment, the regulator and the controler of its interaction with each pupil" specified.
Making common cause with the great writer in understanding of the purposes of education among which main he considered formation of requirement to bring the benefit to another, however, it is possible to disagree with it in judgment about possible ways of achievement of this purpose. L. N. Tolstoy, as we know, assigned the main role to moral education, sharing in it views of educators of XVIIIV. This situation underwent later critical reconsideration when the gap between real behavior of the individual and the knowledge of ethical standards and imperatives of action found by it became the fact obvious to philosophers and teachers.
The child is constantly included in these or those forms of public practice; and if there is no its special organization, educational impact on the child is made by cash, traditionally developed its forms which result of effect can be had in a contradiction with the education purposes.
And if this society needs formation from children of a new circle of abilities and requirements, transformation of an educational system capable to organize effective functioning of new forms of the reproducing activity for this purpose is necessary. The developing educational system role thus acts openly, becoming object of special discussion, the analysis and the purposeful organization.
In this regard, domestic scientists and experts teachers recognize that education (including training cannot tail after "children's development", being guided by its yesterday, and has to correspond to "tomorrow of children's development". The principle of approach to mental development of the personality as to the operated process which is capable to create new structures of personal values of the growing people is accurately reflected in this thesis.
The essence of originally humanistic relation to education of the child is expressed in the thesis of its activity as full subject, but not object of process of education. Own activity of the child is a necessary condition of educational process, but this activity, forms of its manifestation and, the main thing, the implementation level defining its productivity have to be created, created at the child on the basis of historically developed samples, however not their blind reproduction, but creative use.
Therefore, it is important to build so pedagogical process that the tutor directed activity of the child, organizing his active self-education by commission of independent and responsible acts. The teacher-tutor can and is obliged to help growing to the person to pass this - always unique and independent - a way of moral and social development. Education represents not the adaptation of children, teenagers, youthes to cash forms of social life, not adjustment under a certain standard. As a result of assignment of socially developed forms and ways of activity there is a further development - formation of orientation of children to certain values, independence in the solution of complex moral problems. "A condition of efficiency of education - an independent choice or conscious adoption by children of the contents and the purposes of activity".
Historically created educational system provides assignment by children of a certain circle of the abilities, ethical standards and spiritual ancestors conforming to requirements of concrete society, but gradually means and ways of the organization become unproductive.